i. For example, see C.M. Adams (2010). The Community School Effect: Evidence from an Evaluation of the Tulsa Area Community School Initiative. Tulsa, Oklahoma: The Oklahoma Center for Educational Policy: University of Oklahoma; A.S. Bryk, P.B. Sebring, E. Allensworth, S. Luppescu, and J.Q. Easton (2009). Organizing Schools for Improvement: Lessons from Chicago. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
ii. For example, see the Coalition for Community Schools Research Brief 09, http://www.communityschools.org/assets/1/AssetManager/CCS%20Research%20Report2009.pdf.
iii. A.S. Bryk, P.B. Sebring, E. Allensworth, S. Luppescu, and J.Q. Easton (2009). Organizing Schools for Improvement: Lessons from Chicago. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
iv. M.J. Blank, R. Jacobson, A. Melaville, and S.P. Pearson (2010). Financing Community Schools: Leveraging Resources to Support Student Success. Washington, DC: Institute for Educational Leadership.
v. For a description of social capital in the community school, see D. Kirp (2011). Kids First: Five Big Ideas for Transforming Children’s Lives and America’s Future. New York: Public Affairs, pp. 106-107.
vi. M.J. Blank, A. Melaville, B.P. Shah (2003). Making the Difference: Research and Practice in Community Schools. Washington, DC: Institute for Educational Leadership. p. 7
vii. For a discussion of teacher impact, see http://www.ewa.org/site/PageServer?pagename=research_teacher_effectiveness2.
viii. A. Melaville, A.C. Berg, and M.J. Blank (2006). Community-Based Learning: Engaging Students for Success and Citizenship. Washington, DC: Institute for Educational Leadership.
ix. See for example: D. Srikantaiah (2009). How State and Federal Accountability Policies Have Influenced Curriculum and Instruction in Three States. Washington, DC: Center on Education Policy.; J.M. Bridgeland, J.J. DiIulio, and K.M. Morison (2006). The Silent Epidemic: Perspectives of High School Dropouts. Washington, DC: Civic Enterprises.
xi. Kim Nauer, Andrew White, and Rajeev Yerneni (2008). Strengthening Schools by Strengthening Families: Community Strategies to Reverse Chronic Absenteeism in the Early Grades and Improve Supports for Children and Families. New York City: The New School.
xii. According to a 2010 Annie E. Casey Foundation report, reading by grade 3 is a powerful proxy for the long-term academic success of our young people. L. Fiester (2010). Early Warning! Why Reading by the End of Third Grade Matters. Baltimore, MD: Annie E. Casey Foundation.
xiii. Anne C. Kubisch, Patricia Auspos, Prudence Brown, and Tom Dewar (2010). Voices
xiv. from the Field III: Lessons and Challenges from Two Decades of Community Change Efforts.
xv. Washington, DC: Aspen Institute, p. viii.
xvi. James Connell, and Adena Klem. "You Can Get There From Here: Using a Theory of Change Approach to Plan Urban Education Reform." Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation, 1532-768X, vol. 11, no.. 2000, pp. 93-120.
xvii. Eva L. Baker. "Principles for Scaling Up: Choosing, Measuring Effects and Promoting the Widespread Use of Educational Innovation." In Barbara L. Schneider, and Sarah-Kathryn Mcdonald, Scale-up in Education: Ideas in Principle. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, Inc.., 2007.
xviii. Donella H. Meadows. Thinking in Systems: A Primer, edited by Diana Wright. White River Junction, VT: Sustainability Institute, Chelsea Green Publishing, 2008, p. 11.
xix. Foster-Fishman et al., p. 202.
xx. Meadows, p. 17.
xxi. Adapted from Cynthia E. Coburn. "Rethinking Scale: Moving Beyond Numbers to Deep and Lasting Change." In Educational Researcher, vol. 32, no.6, pp 1-12.
xxii. Adapted from Everett M. Rodgers. Diffusion of Innovations, 5th ed. New York: Free Press, Simon & Schuster, 1995.
xxiii. David L. Brown. Creating Credibility: Legitimacy and Accountability for Transnational Civil Society. Bloomfield, CT: Kumarian Press, 2008.
xxiv. See M. Friedman (2005). Trying Hard is Not Good Enough: How to Produce Measurable Improvements for Customers and Communities. Charleston, SC: Fiscal Policy Studies Institute Publishing.
xxv. Connell and Kubish.
xxvi. Hunter, p. 184.
xxvii. Granger: Connell and Kubish.
xxviii. Pennsylvania Community Schools. Catch the Vision, p.6, http://www.unitedwayglv.org/UnitedWayGLV/media/UnitedWayGLVDocuments/PA-Community-Schools-Catch-the-Vision.pdf.
xxix. Adapted from the Alzheimer Association’s Champion Campaign. http://www.alz.org/co/in_my_community_participate.asp.
xxx. Continuous improvement, http://www.fao.org/docrep/W8961E/w8961e08.htm.
xxxi. Mark Friedman. Trying Hard Is Not Good Enough: How to Produce Measurable Improvements for Customers and Communities, www.resultsleadership.org.
xxxii. Sarah Pearson. "Community Schools the United Way," http://www.communityschools.org/assets/1/AssetManager/Community%20Schools-%20The%20United%20Way%20-%20Short .pdf.
xxxiv. The CLC Partnership Networks are a collaboration of agencies, organizations, and other resources committed to the mission, vision, and goals aligned with the CPS Community Learning Centers, CPS Strategic Plan, and relevant regional initiatives. A network leader is assigned to each partnership network to facilitate collaboration, build capacity, and provide ongoing support for implementation at the site level.
xxxv. The CBLT brings together leaders of the partnership networks and key funders to ensure coordination, promote interdisciplinary approaches to maximize positive outcomes, and create models for financial sustainability.
xxxvi. Bertram resigned as EVSC superintendent in spring 2011 to become executive director of Project Lead the Way and was replaced by Dr. David Smith. Smith has held several positions in EVSC, most recently as assistant superintendent of human resources and business affairs. He has pledged to continue to support community schools as a central feature of EVSC’s strategic plan.
xxxvii. Diehl, Daniel (2003). "Program Evaluation: Cedar Hall Elementary Full-Service Model of School Reform, Evaluation Period August 1999 to August 2003." Evansville, IN: p. 19.
xxxviii. PSESD provides support services, professional development, and other support for all school districts in King County.
xxxix. The MHSC coordinates funding and assists with planning and policy decisions among its partners. It is staffed by the Community Service Council, a local non-profit research and planning organization.
xl. Roy Clark is a 2011 National Community School of Excellence award winner.